When I switched from Mac OS X to Slackware on my old MacBook Pro 7,1, I´ve read a lot about rsync snapshot backups. It works, indeed. It just don't work so smooth and unattended as Time Machine did in Mac OS X. There were two features I missed most under Linux/rsync setup:

Since Apr 03, 2014 nsnapshot is unmaintained code kept here only for historical reasons. I'm using luckyBackup as a replacement. There is no article here about it yet.

Updated 2014/09/12: there is a new tool I developed to provide a complete system restore in case of a disaster. Plese take a look at DRP.

  1. The ability to backup to different mounts under different networks.
  2. Make the system completely ignore backup tasks if I'm plugged to a network where I do not have a backup drive.

I work mainly at home. Here I do have a beautiful piece of appliance from Synology, DS211+, that provides me a full 2TB NAS with NFS, mirrored RAID, backups itself to an external USB drive and many others storage bells and whistles. This is my primary backup facility. When I'm at home, I want my backups sent to my NFS mount at DS each four hours.

When I'm at the office tough, I count on an old Apple Time Capsule which provides me 500GB over AFP or SMB. No frills and all the ugly Apple closeness. But I'm still able to mount it using either AFP or SMB on Linux.

When I hit the road, I still use an yet older 150GB external USB drive as a backup storage.

Under OS X, deal with all this different storage destinations for Time Machine backup was a piece of cake. But at Linux this shows to be challenging. When I was updating my knowledge about rsync backups, it became clear very quickly that rsync can't deal with multiple, dynamic destinations. That's not rsync job. rsync's job is to move files way around with confidence.

Then rsnapshot came to me. From it's website:

rsnapshot is a filesystem snapshot utility for making backups of local and remote systems.

Just what I was looking for: local and remote backups. But there's a catch: rsnapshot can't deal with dynamic mount points under different networks too. It just expect that remote destination is already mounted upon backup start.

I couldn't find any viable solution to make this happen so easily and unattended as it was under Mac OS X's Time Machine.

So I decided to write my own piece of code to do it: nsnapshot.

It relies on rsnapshot and takes tree arrays of parameters to decide where a backup should sit: network address, mount point and a force field.

The network parameter is the network address where the backup should happen. For instance, let's say your IP is Your network address on this network is

The mount point is the networked storage resource where your backup is sent to. Of course this should be set under /etc/fstab first I'll leave this as an exercise for the reader.

Finally, the force field says to nsnapshot that it should backup to that mount point regardless your machine is on that network or not. Great for locally mounted devices such as my old USB drive.

After set nsnapshot and rsnapshot.conf up, chmod +x on nsnapshot and ran it through cron I've got completely unattended backups to either local or remote storage, dynamically, just like I had on Time Machine.

One small and useful advice about cron setup if you are an Slackware kind of person follows bellow (thanks to Nick Coleman). Also, don't forget to include ionice and nice commands so your system still gets usable while rsnapshot/rsync is doing its thing.

# Run snapshot backup levels
0 */4 * * * ID=sshourly ionice -c 2 nice -n+19 /usr/local/bin/nsnapshot hourly >> /var/log/rsnapshot 2>&1
50 21-23 * * * ID=ssdaily FREQ=2h/1h ionice -c 2 nice -n+19 /usr/local/bin/nsnapshot daily >> /var/log/rsnapshot 2>&1
40 21-23 * * * ID=ssweekly FREQ=7d/1h ionice -c 2 nice -n+19 /usr/local/bin/nsnapshot weekly >> /var/log/rsnapshot 2>&1
30 21-23 * * * ID=ssmonthly FREQ=30d/1h ionice -c 2 nice -n+19 /usr/local/bin/nsnapshot monthly >> /var/log/rsnapshot 2>&1